Software testing is the process of evaluating software applications to identify whether they meet the specified requirements and deliverables.
Software testing ensures that an application is error-free, functional, and meets user expectations. There are various types of software testing approaches that developers use to test their applications and ensure their quality.
In this article, we’ll look at various software testing approaches and their impact on creating high-quality products. Additionally, we will highlight their respective advantages and disadvantages so you can make an informed decision as to which approach would suit your specific requirements best.
Black Box Testing
Black box testing (also referred to as functional testing) is an approach used in software testing that concentrates on testing functionality rather than the internal workings of an application or system. Black box testers evaluate an end-user experience from within software applications so as to ensure all features and functionalities work as intended.
Black box testing aims to identify defects in software functionality by running various test cases. Testers employ various methodologies like equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, decision tables and state transition diagrams in creating these test cases for black box testing, validating whether applications comply with specifications provided within its specification document or not.
One advantage of black box testing lies in its emulation of real user scenarios; this helps testers anticipate potential issues users could experience with an application.
The main disadvantage of Black Box Testing is that you can’t see the system’s actual behaviour. In addition, it is not possible to validate the output.
White Box Testing
The second method is referred to as White Box Testing. It provides insight into the behaviour of the application. It includes an application analysis, user stories, functional testing, regression testing, integration testing, and functional testing. The primary advantage of White Box Testing is that any type of test automation can be used. The primary disadvantage is that the application can be altered or tampered with.
Unit testing – the most ‘micro’ scale of testing; to test particular functions or code modules. This is typically done by the programmer and not by testers, as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program, design and code. Not always quickly done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code; it may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.
Incremental integration testing
Incremental integration testing (ITT) is a software development practice which involves testing individual components of an app as they are integrated into its overall structure. Testing this way ensures the app functions flawlessly with each piece working harmoniously together – this typically means running tests to verify the functionality before adding more features; using such an approach helps developers identify issues early and fix any arising quickly before problems escalate further.
Incremental integration testing provides significant risk reduction by early defect identification. By breaking complex applications down into smaller chunks, errors are more easily identifiable and addressed quicker, as is a collaboration among developers reducing communication gaps or misunderstandings between them.
Incremental integration testing offers another distinct advantage – its capacity to support agile methodologies like Scrum or Kanban.
Integration testing is testing the many components of a developing software system. It comprises evaluating each of the components that will function together, as well as testing their interdependencies. Integration testing is a testing process that examines the software and how it will be utilised and operated.
During integration testing, the interdependency and interrelationship of the software’s various components are examined to ensure that they function as planned.
Integration testing is performed on the various software components that will function together and can be used to identify any defective components. This will demonstrate that the software is error-free and functions as intended. Integration testing is performed to discover whether or not the software can interact with one another and to examine its interoperability.
A functional test tries to evaluate the software’s functionality. It confirms that a functional component of the system is operating as intended.
It is the most effective software testing stage for validating the system’s behaviour under varied settings and environments. It verifies if the software meets the expectations of the user.
While functionally testing the system, we will employ a variety of ways to automate and accelerate the process.
End-to-end testing is similar to system testing; it involves testing a complete application environment in a situation that imitates real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems.
Sanity or smoke testing is typically initial testing to determine whether a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a significant testing effort.
For example, suppose the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, making the systems crawl or corrupt databases. In that case, the software may not be in a normal condition to warrant further testing in its current state.
The primary purpose of regression testing is to confirm that the functionality that was tested earlier in the software testing life cycle has not changed. In other words, this testing is performed to ensure that the software retains its current functioning.
Acceptance testing – this can be said to be final testing. This was done based on specifications of the end-user or customer or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period.
A software load test is the execution of automated tests to evaluate the performance of an application under a heavy workload. Load testing a software programme enables testers to find potential bottlenecks and other issues that may prevent the application from accommodating a larger number of users at a given time. Load testing can also assist in determining how many concurrent users a programme can support under varying scenarios.
Stress testing – a term often used interchangeably with ‘load’ and ‘performance’ testing. They were also used to describe system functional testing under cumbersome loads, heavy repetition of specific actions or inputs, the input of large numerical values, large complex queries to a database system, etc.
Performance testing – the term often used interchangeably with ‘stress’ and ‘load’ testing. Ideally, ‘performance’ testing is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.
Usability testing – this testing is done for ‘user-friendliness’. This is subjective and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recordings of user sessions, and other techniques can be used. Programmers and testers are usually not suited as usability testers.
Compatibility testing – testing how well the software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Environment.
User acceptance testing
The purpose of user acceptance testing (UAT) is to provide the user with an accurate depiction of the system under development so they can visualise the proposed system’s outcomes. UAT is a sort of software testing that validates the quality of a product and a set of requirements prior to the launch of a project. The primary purpose of UAT is to guarantee that the product is bug-free, meets all requirements, is user-friendly, and corresponds to the plan.
If the UAT is successful, we will be able to launch the project with the confidence that it is bug-free.
Alpha testing – testing an application when development is nearing completion; minor design changes may still be made due to such testing. This is typically done by end-users or others, but not by the programmers or testers.
Beta testing is when development and testing are completed, and final bugs and problems must be found before the last release. This is typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers.