Driscoll’s Model of Reflection Explained With Example

Driscoll’s Model of Reflection

This approach of reflection was established by Driscoll (1994) based on three basic questions: What? Then what?

Terry Borton initially posed the question: “Now what?” (1970). The model provides one of the simplest reflection frameworks. In practice, you should ask yourself the three questions following a significant situation from which you wish to extract lessons.

The “What?” cycle of reflection was created by John Driscoll for use in the healthcare industry but has since found its way into the hands of students of all stripes.

The question “What?” assists in describing the circumstance you wish to learn from. You should identify the situation’s facts and emotions.

So What?” helps you to determine the significance of “What?” In addition, you should challenge the information you and others had in the circumstance, as well as the knowledge and theories that may help you make sense of it.

Now what?’ enables you to formulate a future action plan based on the answers to the preceding questions.

Each step needs a different way of thinking and a different way of using language.

explain driscoll's model of reflection

Step 1, “What?” asks the learner to think back on what happened as objectively as possible, without judging anything.

Step 2, “So what?” asks the learner to slow down and look for patterns or important moments. The important thing here is to bring ideas that help explain what’s happening.

In a writing class, for example, a student might learn terms like logos, pathos, and ethos that have to do with how to persuade people. Any of these words can be used to describe a way to analyse the experience.

Step 3: “Now what?” tells the learner to apply what they’ve learned to new situations and other contexts. As this section’s first chapter says, the transfer is the essential part of becoming a reflective practitioner.

These three straightforward questions might help us start to analyse our experiences and draw lessons from them. To put the circumstance or experience in context, we need first to explain it.

This helps us understand the situation we are in. The next step is to evaluate the event by asking, “So what?” – what have we learned as a result of it?

The last step invites us to consider the course of action we will take in response to this reflection. Will we adopt a new habit, attempt something novel, or stick with the status quo?

It’s crucial to remember that introspection may not lead to any adjustments and that we may feel we are doing appropriately in every situation. You shouldn’t be concerned if you cannot come up with anything to improve because this is a result that is equally valid.

How to Examine Driscoll’s Model of Reflection

Although Driscoll’s model of reflection is not the most popular, it offers a number of benefits, largely because of how straightforward it is. When compared to other models, the three-stage approach is simpler and simpler to recall. It is more probable that you will use a tool or framework more frequently if it is simple.

Why is Driscoll’s Model of Reflection Important? Advantages

Driscoll also addresses why transformation via reflection is stressed so much in his study. When he argues in favour of the requirement for reflective practice, he makes reference to his colleague Jarvis.

He argues that nurses interact with individuals who cause them to carry out their responsibilities responsively and reflectively owing to their individual characters, rather than just doing them on a routine basis.

He also mentions Cox and others. According to a 1994 research, individuals in general, even nurses, don’t usually consider their actions in great depth before acting. As a result, these nurses are accused of operating on automatic pilot, following predetermined patterns to guide their activities.

What are the Consequences of a Driscoll’s Model of Reflection

John Driscoll lists a number of outcomes and prerequisites for “reflective practise” in the research where he expands on this topic.

driscoll's model of reflection

He also makes reference to Bulman, who contends that practitioners are forced to confront discomfort and inconsistencies via introspection. The context of this study at the time was the nursing industry.

He adds that introspection is a purposeful action that needs both time and commitment. The most crucial question is undoubted “Why did you do that?” One of the prerequisites for consistent critical reflection in practice is the ability to respond to that question. A better query would be, “Why did you decide to do nothing?”

Other instances of reflective workers in action (from the nursing industry) include:

  • Instead of competing with more conventional types of knowledge about a particular subject, benefits the group.
  • May provide knowledge that is based on practice since it is based on actual practice.
    respects and comprehends the motivations behind what coworkers do.
  • Can aid others in developing a better understanding of challenging and difficult workouts.
  • Can help others by giving them a chance to speak.
  • Prioritises patient care improvement.
  • Inspires others to look for methods to practise improving and be more productive.
  • Provides a hands-on learning exercise that can aid in the professional development of other people.
  • Provides a thorough, evidence-based approach.

The requirements or some of the burdens to reflect are:

  • Scheduling some time to take part in this.
  • Separating oneself from the crowd.
  • Challenging practised conformity
  • Often a voice of solitude.
  • Less happy with how the work is being done.
  • A desire to learn more about the rationale behind decisions.
  • Calling someone a troublemaker
  • Alternate work approaches are being suggested.
  • Having no notion or understanding of how to develop an idea further.
  • Stakeholder pressure to change.
  • Stakeholder pressure to maintain the status quo.
  • Fear of upsetting a relationship.
  • Fear of advancement and pursuing goals.

Where to apply Driscoll’s Model of Reflection

In his research, John Driscoll questions out loud which group of readers should support making reflection a regular occurrence on the job.

driscoll's model of reflection experience

Other formalised events, like student evaluations or meetings with the department manager, are less likely to be forgotten. The knowledge and formalised opportunities in nursing to think about reflection are included below. Think about the following:

  • Convergence sessions.
  • Transitional periods
  • Meetings/lessons/courses.
  • Reading journal articles.
  • Journal club guests.
  • Conferences or gatherings for networks.
  • Study of clinical cases.
  • Case discussions
  • Going to the doctor’s rounds.
  • Mentoring.
  • Working with staff who have greater experience.
  • Working with novice nurses.
  • Letters of dissatisfaction.
  • Events that are crucial or significant for the department.
  • Keeping a portfolio for your career.
  • Clinical risk evaluations.

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