Victor Vroom and his colleagues, Philip Yetton and Arthur Jago, created a decision-making instrument to assist leaders in determining the level of participation they should seek while making decisions.
The model begins with leaders answering several essential questions and moving through a funnel according to their responses.
The model of Vroom and Yetton was normative; it gave a sequential set of criteria for defining the form and degree of participation desired in decision-making, as necessitated by various organisational settings.
The model consisted of a complex decision tree with seven circumstances (whose relevance was determined by selecting “yes” or “no”) and five alternative leadership styles. Recent work by Vroom and Arthur Jago has resulted in a barrier-free modification of this model. The revised model retains the same five different leadership styles but increases the number of contingency variables from five to twelve, with ten of those variables being responded to on a five-point scale.
This model identifies five different styles (ranging from autocratic to consultative to group-based decisions) on the situation and level of involvement. They are:
Autocratic Type 1 (AI)
Leader makes their own decision using information that is readily available to them or at the time. This type is completely autocratic.
Autocratic Type 2 (AII)
Leader collects the required information from followers, and then makes decisions alone. Problems or decisions may or may not be informed to followers. Here, followers’ involvement is just providing information.
Consultative Type 1 (CI)
The leader shares problems with relevant followers individually and seeks their ideas and suggestions, and makes decisions alone. Followers do not meet each other, and the leader’s decision may or may not reflect his followers’ influence. So, here followers’ involvement is at the level of providing alternatives individually.
Consultative Type 2 (CII)
The leader shares problems with relevant followers as a group and seeks their ideas and suggestions and makes decisions alone. Here followers meet each other, and through discussions, they understand other alternatives. But the leader’s decision may or may not reflect the followers’ influence. So, here followers’ involvement is at the level of helping as a group in decision-making.
Group-based Type 2 (GII)
Leader discusses problems and situations with followers as a group and seeks their ideas and suggestions through brainstorming. The leader accepts any decision and does not try to force his or her idea. The decision accepted by the group is the final one.
Understanding the Model
Based on your present scenario, the Vroom-Yetton model is meant to assist you in determining the optimal decision-making strategy and leadership style to use. Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton first proposed it in their 1973 book “Leadership and Decision Making.”
There isn’t a single decision-making procedure that works in every situation. Instead, Vroom-Yetton provides you with various options and guides you to the ideal one for your needs. If speed and decisiveness are necessary, an autocratic method is likely to be used.
When managers follow the paradigm, researchers have discovered that they are more effective, and their staff are more productive and pleased. Vroom-simplicity Yetton’s also means that everyone may use it, from the boardroom to the manufacturing floor.
It may be particularly useful in new or unique situations while being a touch wordy at times. If you practise utilising it, you’ll rapidly get a sense of the best strategy to take, whether you’re dealing with a day-to-day issue or a more complicated challenge.
Decision quality – Making the “correct” decision can be crucial at times, and you’ll need to pool a lot of resources (people, time, knowledge, and so on) to guarantee that the action you choose is well-thought-out and of high quality.
Team commitment – Some of your choices will have a significant influence on your group, while others may go undetected. It’s preferable to employ a collaborative procedure when a choice will have an impact on your team. This will increase the decision’s quality, and you’ll be able to produce a successful outcome more quickly.
Time constraints – When the problem at hand isn’t urgent, you have more “room” to consider your alternatives and engage others, which will help you reach a better conclusion. However, if your time is restricted, you may not be able to include others or conduct extensive research.
The model that Vroom and Yetton developed is rather intricate, yet the research findings corroborate the model’s validity. When compared with leaders who use a style that is not advised by the model, leaders who use the style that the model recommends tending to make decisions that are more productive on average.