According to the JD-R Model, stress and burnout are prevalent when job demands are high, and job positives are low.
On the other hand, positive aspects of a job can help mitigate the impacts of high workloads and increase motivation and engagement.
The job demands-resources model (JD-R model) is an occupational stress model that proposes that strain is a reaction to an imbalance between the individual’s needs and the resources available to meet those demands. The JD-R replaced other models of employee well-being, such as the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model.
As a result, the JD-R analyses organizations and workers under various working situations. Furthermore, the JD-R model incorporates both negative and positive indicators and outcomes of employee well-being, rather than focusing primarily on negative outcome factors (e.g., burnout, poor health, and repeated strain).
What is the demand for JD-R Job?
A brief list of assumptions/premises may be used to summarise the JD-R model:
Although each occupation has a unique set of risk factors for job stress, these elements may be divided into job demands and job resources.
Demands of the job
Aspects of the work that demand continuous physical and/or psychological effort or abilities include those that are physical, psychological, social, or organizational. As a result, they come at a price in terms of physiological and/or psychological consequences. Workplace stress and emotional expectations are two examples.
Physical, psychological, social, or organizational elements of the workplace that are either: useful in accomplishing work goals; decrease job demands and related physiological and psychological costs; or promote personal growth, learning, and development. Career possibilities, supervisor guidance, position clarity, and autonomy are all examples.
Workplace Resources vs. Personal Resources: The JD-R writers differentiate between workplace resources and personal resources.
In the development of occupational pressure and motivation, two separate underlying psychological processes play a role. The first is the physical and social resources that are available at work. On the other hand, personal resources are those that the employee brings with them. Self-efficacy and optimism are two of these personality characteristics. Employee well-being is mediated by both sorts of assets (e.g. engagement).
Consistent Job Strain’s Consequences
Poorly planned work or long-term job demands deplete employees’ mental and physical resources, resulting in health damage. As a result, energy may be depleted, and health issues may arise.
The Effects of Having a Lot of Money and Personal Resources
Job resources exercise their motivational power through this mechanism, resulting in strong work engagement, minimal cynicism, and great performance. Job resources may motivate people in two ways: intrinsically and extrinsically.
Who invented the JD-R model?
In 2006, the Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R model) was introduced as an alternative to the existing employee well-being models. Eva Demerouti and Arnold Bakker are the creators of the Job Demands-Resources Model. They released the results of a lengthy study in The Journal of Managerial Physiology.
What is the meaning of work engagement?
Work Engagement or a positive state of mind at work is described as positive behaviour or a beneficial state of mind that leads to positive job-related results. Employees that are highly engaged at work are energized, committed, and completely involved in their job. Work engagement comes under the positive psychology tradition, which is a branch of psychology that focuses on strategies to improve welfare rather than diagnosing or treating mental illness.
Assumptions taken in JD-R Model
The JD-R model may be summarised as follows:
While each profession may have unique risk factors for work stress, these characteristics fall into two broad categories: job demands and job resources. Work demands are those components of the job that are physical, psychological, social, or organisational and need persistent physical and/or psychological effort or abilities. As a result, individuals incur specific physiological and/or psychological expenses. Workplace pressures and emotional expectations are two examples.
Job resources are physical, psychological, social, or organisational characteristics of a job that are either useful in attaining work objectives, minimising job demands and related physiological and psychological costs; or promoting personal growth, learning, and development. Career possibilities, supervisor guidance, position clarity, and autonomy are all examples.
Workplace vs. Personal Resources: The JD-writers R’s distinguish between work and personal resources.
Two distinct psychological mechanisms contribute to the emergence of work pressure and motivation. The first category of resources is the physical and social resources accessible in the workplace. On the other hand, personal resources are those that an employee brings. These are two distinct personality characteristics: self-efficacy and optimism. Both resources are quite effective at mediating employee well-being (e.g. engagement).
Consequences of Persistent Job Strain
Process of health impairment occurs as a result of poorly planned occupations or chronic job pressures depleting employees’ mental and physical resources. This, in turn, may result in energy loss and health concerns.
The Consequences of Abundant Employment and Personal Resources
Motivational process: this is the mechanism through which workplace resources exercise their motivational potential and result in high levels of work engagement, low levels of cynicism, and superior performance. Job resources might be internal or external motivators.
The combination between work demands and job resources also plays a role in developing job strain and motivation. According to the JD-R model, work resources may act as a buffer between job demands and job strain, including burnout. Which specific job resources mitigate the impact of varying job demands varies according to the work environment.
Thus, work strain may be predicted by a combination of various sorts of job demands and job resources. Work resources such as performance feedback and social support are excellent examples of job resources that have the ability to buffer job demands.
When job demands are high, job resources have a pronounced effect on motivation and engagement. This assumption is based on the premises of conservation of resources (COR) theory. People are driven to acquire, keep, and preserve their resources, according to this notion, because they are valued.
Hobfoll contends that resource gain takes on more significance in the face of resource decline. This means that work resources become more motivating when employees are presented with high task demands. For instance, when workers are subjected to severe emotional demands, their colleagues’ social support may become more obvious and crucial.